Under Napoleon’s conspiracy plan, on 18 and 19 ‘Brumayer’ (November 9 and 10, 1799), a state-coup (Coup d’.etat) took place in France which ended the directory, placing Napoleon at the center of the power of France. Established.
In place of the directory, ‘Consulate’ was now established in France, with three ‘Consul’ members
There will be – Napoleon Bonaparte, Sieyes and Ducos. Napoleon was appointed the first Consul. France’s executive power as Napoleon’s First Consul (1799 1804) now came to a three-member Consulate in place of a five-member ‘directory’. The focal point of this consulate was its first consolation, Napoleon. For the new system, within a month, under the direction of Napoleon, the new constitution of France was created. This constitution was named as – ‘Constitution of the eighth year of the Republic. (1799) New Constitution of France (1799): New Constitution of France -‘ Constitution of the eighth year of the Republic. (1799) ‘in force after the commencement of the Revolution. The fourth constitution of France was done. By this constitution. All the powers of the state were concentrated in the hands of the First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte. To say so, the executive power of the state was in the hands of three consuls and the legislative power was vested in the four houses – the state. Council of State, Tribunate, Legislative Body, and Senate. All this frills revolution was done to maintain the myth of ‘sovereignty to the masses’. But the real sovereignty was now in the hands of Napoleon. Without his orders, the bill could not be debated in the House or voted. Even after the passage of the bill, it could not be executed without the order of the First Consul. Overall, the actual legislative and executive power was in the hands of Napoleon, the rest of the court was to preserve the name of the Republic. As Heijn has written – ‘France was still a republic — at the name level, but in practice it was as attractive as the position of the monarch, who was a king ruling with divine will; the difference was just that Napoleon’s tenure as consul was ten years old and he did not have the right to nominate his successor. He also replenished these deficiencies later.
It is noteworthy that in 1802 Napoleon was declared a lifetime appointee to the post of First Consul.
Went and was also empowered to nominate his successor. The above constitution of France was confirmed by popular plebiscite. How did the French people so easily accept Napoleon’s acquisition of power through the above constitution? One, the people of France were saddened by the reluctant, inefficient and corrupt governance of the directory and aspired to a strong centralized government. He saw Napoleon as a strong hero of France. Secondly, there was a serious threat of foreign invasion of France and the existence of France was in danger.
War against the Second United Front (1801 1802): Against France, the then major powers formed a Second Coalition when Napoleon when Egyptian soldiers
The expedition went when this united front took over Italy and the Rhine river valley.
And the treaty of Campo Formi had made the United Front infiltrated by entering into the territory of France.
Was determined to go to war. The principal nations of this united front were Great Britain, Austria and Russia.
Bonaparte, through diplomacy and flattery, achieved the neutrality of Russia, an important part of the above alliance. Russia was also dissatisfied with its allies. He disassociated himself from this alliance. This was a major diplomatic success of Napoleon. Napoleon then decided to take on the war against his old enemy Austria.
Napoleon’s Second Italy Campaign (1800):
When Napoleon was in Egypt, Austria recaptured the territory of northern Italy, thus derailing the successes of Napoleon’s first Italian campaign (1796–1797). Napoleon now again led a military campaign in Italy. Napoleon, with an army of 40,000 men, crossed the snowy path of the Great Saint Bemard Pass of the Alps Mountains, and after landing in the fertile valley of the Po River, his army at a place called Marengo. Faced with (June 14, 1800). The war went on in a dramatic way, but ultimately Napoleon’s forces made a spectacular victory over Austria. Austria made a treaty with France, according to which he accepted France’s authority over northern Italy. Six months later (December 3, 1800), the French army led by Moro (Moreau) also defeated the Austrian forces at a place called Hohelinden, Germany. This defeat opened the way to Vienna. Austria was forced to enter into a Treaty of Luneville with France (9 February, 1801), the terms of the ‘Treaty of Campo Formio’ were accordingly accepted.
Peace agreement with England (1802)
After Russia’s neutrality and Austria’s defeat, Great Britain now faced the challenge of France. Brit and France were warring for the last nearly nine years